Application of pesticides continues to play a significant role in reducing crop losses due to pests even under IPM as a last resort. The success of pest management operations depends on proper technique of application of pesticide and the equipment used. Selecting the right equipment for pesticide application is vital for successful pest control to ensure safe and judicious use of pesticides. Huge amounts of pesticides are wasted or unnecessarily applied and persons involved in spraying are exposed to serious risks of pollution. Application of pesticides is being done mostly by untrained operators and they also take most of the decisions in the field themselves. They are unmindful of the safety precautions in handling, usage and disposal of pesticides. It is also to be noted that the operators do not make a distinction between chemical insecticides, herbicides, fungicides and bio pesticides while choosing the appliances, nozzles and application techniques. Such inappropriate applications invariably result in undesirable consequences.
Therefore there is a need to create awareness on selection and operation of proper equipment and techniques for safe and judicious application of pesticides. Continuous research programmes are also essential to develop suitable technologies to meet the localized requirements in the areas of application of different types of pesticides and post harvest practices. NIPHM focuses on building the capacity of the stakeholders in correct selection of equipment and techniques of application and use of appropriate nozzles, safe and judicious use of pesticides and also in proper methods of storage. The institute is also involved in development of low cost appropriate technology for adoption at farm level.
a) CAPACITY BUILDING PROGRAMMEES
Trained and skilled manpower should be available to further train and empower the farmers/ operators to select, calibrate and operate the application equipment. Sensitization and exposure of extension functionaries of State Governments, and other stakeholders to the vital aspects of pesticides application technology is essential for ensuring safe & judicious use of pesticides for enhancing food safety and global trade. The training programmes offered by NIPHM are
Safe and Judicious Use of Pesticides
The programme is of 8 days duration in which aspects of Insecticides Act, 1968 & Insecticide Rules, 1971, various pesticide formulations with regard to their applications, compatibility, shelf-life, toxicity, symptoms of poisoning & first–aid/ antidotes, environmental pollution were discussed in detail. The participants are exposed to appropriate application techniques, selection of nozzles & equipment, its maintenance, and calibration.
Special programme on Safe and Judicious Use of Pesticides for different stakeholders
Special tailor-made programmes of 4-5 days duration can also be organized for different stake holders in private / public sector to create skill & awareness in calibration, selection of nozzles, appropriate application techniques and International Code of Conduct for safe and judicious use of pesticides and also covering toxicity due to pesticides, symptoms of poisoning, first–aid and antidotes required, etc.
Pesticide Application Technology
This training programme is of 8 days duration organized for the extension functionaries emphasizing the knowledge on safe and judicious use of pesticides, proper selection of techniques & corresponding machine, calibrating the appliance, choice of nozzles, maintenance, weed control techniques and rodent control techniques, etc.
Appropriate Pesticide Application Techniques and Farm Level Storage Practices
This programme of 8 days duration has been designed for field extension functionaries to impart skills and knowledge on proper application techniques, selection of correct nozzle, selection of the equipment, its maintenance, calibration of the equipment, safe and judicious use of pesticides. Storage problems of food grains at commercial or farm level, traditional storage structures, modern storage structures at farm level, problems of moisture and damage of food grains and control of stored grain pest at farm level are covered.
b) Research and Development:
As part of R&D efforts, the Institute has developed affordable appliances to enable safe and judicious application of pesticides, and safe drying & storage of food grains.
NIPHM Paddy Dryer:
A paddy dryer of (2T) capacity has been developed by the institute during the year to enable on farm drying of food grains especially during the rainy seasons. Experimental trials were also carried out using moist paddy and it was observed that moisture was reduced from 28% to 14% in 12 hrs. The product was developed by Er.G. Shankar-Joint Director.
Solar Hybrid Dryer:
Solar dryers can reduce post harvest losses and significantly contribute to improving processing facilities leading to good quality products while reducing dependence on conventional energy sources. The solar hybrid dryer was designed and the experimental trials were conducted for different products such as copra, chillies, and raisins. The product was developed by Er. G. Shankar, Joint Director; Er. M Udaya Bhanu, Scientific Officer and Dr. K Satyagopal, IAS, Director General.