Training Program Details

Plant Biosecurity is a strategic and integrated approach consisting of policy and regulatory frameworks to analyze and manage risks to plant health. It is a practice of managing biological risks associated with food and agriculture in a holistic manner. In the era of globalization, plant biosecurity has emerged as a vital aspect of concern, which needs enactment of regulations, policies, enhancement of technological capabilities and human capacity building to overcome and meet such threats to the environment. It is a fast growing field which deals with plant pests and their impacts on food security, trade, and market access, ultimately, the profitability and sustainability of agriculture and allied sectors. Agricultural contours of most countries have been changing fast in response to increasing demand for veritable food and agricultural products, globalization and technological revolutions, and so have been changing the pests and diseases.

The plant quarantine regulation in India is aimed to protect the country from ingress of exotic pests during import of agriculture commodities. There is an imperative requisite to create awareness about plant quarantine system, plant biosecurity, risk associated with exotic plant pests and their effective preventive control measures and market access for export of plant products. In order to reinforce Agricultural Biosecurity, the Department of Agriculture, Cooperation and Farmers Welfare under Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India has designated NIPHM as a nodal centre for capacity building in the above mentioned area.

I. Capacity Building Programmes

The division organizes educational and capacity building training programs in Biosecurity & Incursion Management and special capacity building programmes to promote SPS compliance. In addition to regular training programmes, organizes Workshops, International programmes and exclusive programmes for the Officials of DPPQ&S and NACEN.

A. Educational Programs

MOOCs on Plant Biosecurity

AThe main objective of the course is to create awareness about plant biosecurity, plant quarantine system, to combat invasive plant pest threats, to enhance technical capabilities and human capacity building to meet such threats and to enhance Sanitary and Phytosanitary compliance. Plant Biosecurity is of paramount importance to any country to safeguard food-security, sustainability of agricultural/horticultural production and also in protecting livelihood of people. It has emerged as an urgent issue, which requires implementation of regulations, policies, enhancement of technological capabilities and human capacity building to meet such threats.

MOOCs on Rodent and Household Pest Management

The changing public health scenario of the country calls for organized commercial pest control operations. This, in turn, will give rise to demand for technically qualified manpower to manage different aspects of identifying the insect pests that are problematic in urban and sub-urban areas and novel management techniques, etc. The objective of the Course is to create a pool of pest control professionals with capacity to manage pest control operations efficiently and to help them have latest knowledge and understanding of biology, identification, habitats and management of rodents and household insect pests.

B. Program for public sector

1. Plant Biosecurity and Incursion Management

Rapid globalization and advancements in transport, travel, tourism coupled with liberalization of trade pose increased risk of introduction of exotic and invasive pests into the country. Alien Plant Pests which gained entry into India are causing significant economic damage to agricultural production. The training programme of 12 days duration provides the exposure to participants in biosecurity concepts, impact of invasive alien species, exotic pest threats, pest risk analysis and plant pest incursion management.

2. Quarantine Insects: Detection & Identification

Insect pests cause great damage in field and storage and hence are considered as threat not only to biosecurity but also to the food security. Reliable detection methodologies and accurate & timely diagnosis is paramount in identification of insect pests of quarantine concern to prevent entry, establishment and spread of pests of concern to India.

The participants learn about the concepts of quarantine, quarantine pests, regulated pests, economic impact of introduced pests in India, important insects of quarantine significance to India. The participants get exposure to the looming threats of insect pests to Agriculture, Horticulture, Plantation crops and Forest Trees, methods and protocols and online tools for identification of insect pests. The participants also get hands-on experience in collection, pinning and preservation of insect specimens and procedures to be followed for dispatching the specimens for identification to diagnostic centres.

3. Quarantine pathogens: Seed Health Testing and Molecular Diagnostic Techniques

Seeds are the foundation for crop production and seed health is related to food production in many ways. Healthy seeds, free from known seed transmitted pathogens, are a prerequisite for sustainable food production. A seed health test is a phytosanitary requirement imposed by NPPO before allowing send to enter their territory in order to prohibit the entry/establishment/spread of exotic pests/pathogens. In view of this, a five days training module was created to create the pool of expertise in the area of seed health testing and molecular diagnostic techniques.

4. Pest Surveillance

Pest surveillance provides insights into the health status of a country’s agriculture and strengthens preparedness for preventive actions both in addressing the problems due to domestic pests of serious concern as well as in protection of native agricultural biodiversity from the incursion threats of exotic pests. During the five days training programme the participants will learn various pest surveillance strategies such as detection, monitoring and delimiting surveys. The tools required for surveillance of target pests and the procedures for establishment of Pest Free Areas to gain Market Access, various lures and traps for carrying out fruit fly surveillance for monitoring as well as for area-wide control will be covered during the programme.

5. Stored Grain Pests-Detection and Identification

Increasing trade in stored grains and stored products is causing alarming biosecurity concerns. The international grain movement is increasingly becoming a contentious issue both for biosecurity protection and market access negotiations. The detection of such pests and precise identification is essential to determine the appropriate Phytosanitary treatment. In the five days training program, participants will learn inspection & sampling methods to detect insect pests & identification of different stored grain insect pests by using various identification keys and online tools. The participants will also learn the importance of specific pests which hamper the exportable commodities from India, with specific reference to Khapra beetle.

6. Fruit fly Surveillance and Management

Fruit flies are responsible for losses in fresh produce as well as considered as major impediment in export of economically important fruits and vegetables. In five day training programme on Fruit fly Surveillance and Management, through various lectures & hands-on practices the participants will learn about fruit fly biology, classification, fruit fly identification, exotic fruit flies and their paths of entry, fruit fly surveillance. More emphasis is given on surveillance, pre-harvest management of fruit flies by employing cultural control, trapping by using baits and lures, biological control agents and sterile insect technique for area-wide management of fruit flies. The participants will also learn about the strategies to promote export of fresh produce by employing postharvest management measures including phytosanitary treatment and pest free area concept. Practical sessions included preparation of low-cost bottle trap and Methyl Eugenol & Cue lure, establishment of traps in the field and collection and identification of fruit flies.

7. Orientation for PEQ Inspection Authorities

In five day training programme on orientation for PEQ Inspection Authorities the participants will learn the role and responsibilities of Inspection Authorities in safeguarding the nation from ingress of exotic pests, protocols to be followed in establishing and certification of open field or closed PEQ facilities. The programme covers the significance of PEQ inspections at required intervals and skills for detection and identification of quarantine pests, preservation of specimens, forwarding of specimens to nodal laboratories for authentication, applying appropriate mitigation measures in the event of detection of quarantine pests, reporting the clearance from PEQ and Import non-compliance (if any) for different types of planting materials as per the Standard Operating Procedures will be covered.

8. Plant Quarantine Procedures for Import and Export:

The five day duration training on ‘Plant Quarantine Procedures for Import and Export’ covers the important aspects such as importance of SPS Agreement, International conventions, National Regulations, SOPs on imports and exports. Further, through mock exercises & practical scenarios, the participants will learn the procedures for use of on-line PQIS software and procedures to be followed in import/export of seeds, plants, bulbs, grains, fruits, GMOs, Germplasm and bio-control agents.

9. Pest Risk Analysis:

Pest risk analysis (PRA) is a science based tool to tackle the alien pests of concern to any nation while facilitating international trade. PRA is a process which helps to assess the risks of entry, establishment and spread potential of exotic pests. PRA helps to identify the options to prevent the entry and management options in the event of pest establishment. The international standards brought out by IPPC serve as guidance for carrying out PRA.

The participants will learn the importance of International conventions & National regulations, SPS obligations for regulating trade based on pest risk analysis, concept of risk and risk analysis, PRA process for assessing the likelihood of pests being associated with the pathway, transport, its direct and indirect impact in the event of pest establishment, spread and the risk management options to minimize such event to happen. The participants will also learn the importance of PRA for market access for new commodities in the international trade through mock exercises.

10. Orientation for Phytosanitary Certification (PSC) Issuing Authorities

Phytosanitary certification is one of the basic measures employed by the IPPC member countries to prevent global movement of plant pests in traded agricultural commodities. Phytosanitary certificates are issued by the exporting NPPO as a plant health certificate after carrying out inspection, sampling, testing and treatment (if required) to promote safe trade. The participants will get acquainted on international regulations and obligations under IPPC to promote safe agricultural trade, the role and responsibilities of NPPO and PSC issuing authorities. They also learn procedures for use of on-line PQIS software skills for inspection & sampling, testing for pests of concern to importing countries, importing country’s regulations. The importance of PFA/ALPP in export promotion and role of phytosanitary treatments for mitigating the pest risks as per the Standard Operating Procedures for Phytosanitary Certification will be covered in the programme.

11. Irradiation as a Phytosanitary Treatment

The increased movement of Agricultural commodities in International trade become a contentious issue for both biosecurity and market access negotiations.The Phytosanitary Treatments such as fumigation, cold treatment, forced hot air treatment, hot water immersion treatment and irradiation are used as pest risk management option for prevention of exotic pests in International trade. Many countries use irradiation as phytosanitary treatment in export and import of fresh fruits and vegetables.
IPPC developed and exclusive standard for irradiation: ISPM-18 – “Guidelines for the use of irradiation as a phytosanitary measure”. The NPPO of India developed NSPM-21 which gives guidelines for Certification of Irradiation Treatment Facilities to meet the Phytosanitary requirements.
In order to create awareness about irradiation as phytosanitary treatment for export of agricultural and horticultural commodities, treatment development and validation, safety measures and post treatment protocols, NIPHM is organizing five days training program on “Irradiation as Phytosanitary Treatment.

C. Programmes for Private Sector:

1. Phytosanitary Inspection Training for Phytosanitary Service Agency and Phytosanitary Service Provider for Inspection of Plants/ Plant Products and other Regulated Articles in Export:

Plant Biosecurity Division of NIPHM has been organizing an exclusive one month training program on “Phytosanitary Inspection Training for Phytosanitary Service Agency and Phytosanitary Service Provider for Inspection of Plants/ Plant Products and other Regulated Articles in Export” to impart the technical skills and competency to perform phytosanitary inspection and certification in compliance of NSPM-23. The training enabled the participants to acquire technical skills and competency in performance of phytosanitary inspection for export consignments of plants/plant products and other regulated articles meeting the phytosanitary requirements of importing country and there by fulfilling the international obligations under IPPC the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) and WTO-SPS Agreement.

2. Phytosanitary Treatments

Phytosanitary Treatments often serve as one stop solution at the end point of export. The increased trade in agricultural products is accompanied by the increased risk of entry of inadvertently transporting quarantine pests to countries or regions. Quarantine pests can seriously disrupt trade of fresh agricultural products not only between countries, but also between geographical areas within countries unless accepted post-harvest quarantine treatments are available. Phytosanitary treatments are helpful in safeguarding biosecurity and also in gaining market access. Following programmes on Phytosanitary Treatments were offered.

a) Fumigation as a Phytosanitary Treatment (Methyl Bromide and Aluminium Phosphide Fumigation):

Among the Phytosanitary treatments, Fumigation is most accepted treatment. Fumigation treatment providers form an important and indispensable part for the import/export of agricultural commodities in international trade and knowledge and skill sets possessed by them can make a great difference in the success of Phytosanitary treatments. NIPHM is one of the notified Institutes under Insecticides Rules 1971 Chapter III -10, (3a) (iii) for imparting training for commercial pest control operators on fumigation using Methyl bromide and Phosphine. The participants will learn use of approved fumigants, their physical and chemical properties, safety precautions to be followed while handling fumigants, modes of action of fumigants, principles of fumigation, monitoring the fumigant concentration, appropriate use and maintenance of fumigants and safety equipment. The participants will be able to understand the guidelines laid in NSPM-11, 12 (MBr fumigation) and NSPM-22 (Phosphine fumigation) to conduct appropriate fumigation procedures as well as the accreditation procedure of fumigation operators prescribed by the Directorate of PPQ&S. Department of Agriculture and Water Resources, Government of Australia organized and conducted 3 days training on “Managing Biosecurity Treatment Systems” at NIPHM.

b) Forced Hot Air Treatment (FHAT):

The packaging material is one of the most threatening pathways for incursion of timber pests across the globe. Forced Hot Air Treatment (FHAT) is one of the approved treatments for packaging material under ISPM -15. National Standard for Forced Hot Air Treatment (NSPM-9) has been developed which prescribes treatment procedures and the steps to register the facility. It is essential to certify the FHAT facilities to ensure that wood packaging material is treated and marked in consistence with the provisions of ISPM -15.
NIPHM is the only Institute in India to offer a specialized training programme on FHAT for industry stakeholders. The participants learn the critical requirements for establishing FHAT facilities, calibration of sensors, placement of sensor, identification of coolest point, safety precautions, conducting the treatments, use of appropriate mark and record keeping in accordance with ISPM – 15 and NSPM – 9.

Vertebrate and Urban Pest Management

Rodent Pests are cause of concern in Agriculture, Horticulture, Food grain and commodity storage, and Public Health sectors. The crop damage made by them varies from 5 to 15% contributing significantly to the productivity of cereal, pulse, oilseed and plantation crops. The loss caused by them to food grain and commodity storage is about 2.5% in the country. Rodents also affect public health as vectors and reservoirs for bacteria which cause zoonotic diseases such as plague, leptospirosis, scrub typhus, Leishmaniosis, murine typhus and salmonellosis. The increase in urbanization and variability in climate further aggravated their problem leading to rodent outbreaks in some pockets of country. The Institute has been in the forefront of Rodent Pest Management by significant contributions in rodent pest and vector management within the country and abroad since 1967. Realizing the increasing rodent problems, the Vertebrate & Urban Pest Management Division (V&UPM) offers capacity building programs on various related to rodents, higher vertebrates and urban pests to scientists of SAU, agricultural extension functionaries, pest control professionals, farmers etc to undertake the actual control operation and prophylactic strategy and follow-up measures.

Increase human population will have effect on environment and also on civic infra-structure systems including sewerage, drainage, solid waste management and consequently public health. The public health problems are compounded due to increasing interface between human and pest populations, viz., rodents, mosquitoes, cockroaches, flies etc. The management of these pests at individual premises is taken up by commercial Pest Control Operators (PCOs). However, the personnel lack professional training. National Institute of Plant Health Management (NIPHM) is one of the notified institutes for giving training on UIPM for the pest control professionals. The training provides an opportunity to develop skills about urban pest’s biology, bionomics and management practices and prepares the participants for emergency preparedness to prevent the outbreak of communicable zoonotic diseases, to develop skills in safe use of chemical pesticides.

Capacity Building Programmes

Training on Risk assessment and management of vertebrate pests in agriculture and horticultural ecosystem

To impart the knowledge on vertebrate pests (nilgai, wild boar, rodents, monkeys, birds etc.,), its and its mitigation measures to prevent losses in different agricultural corps among the Indian agricultural universities and SAUs scientists. Training is designed to understand vertebrate pest problems in agrarian and urban ecosystems and commodity storage; to diagnose major vertebrate pests and understand their biology in relation with their management; to understand the methods of assessing their infestation and damage incidence; to understand various methods involved in their management including monitoring the management measures; to understand the planning processes involved for implementation of vertebrate pest management; to understand the role of chemicals in management of rodent pests and to analyse reasons for wild animal problems for suggesting appropriate management measures. The training program is devised to be highly practical oriented.

Rodent Pest Management

The objective of the programme is to understand rodent pest problems in rice ecosystem, to diagnose major rodent pests and understand their biology in relation with their management, to understand the methods of assessing their infestation and damage incidence in rice and to understand the planning processes involved for implementation of rodent pest management. The training is meant for field level extension functionaries of State agriculture and horticulture departments and agricultural universities.

Rodent pest Management in Store house of food grains

5 day duration training is being conducted for the State Government officials, Food Corporation of India and Central Warehousing and State Warehousing Quality Control officials to develop skills about rodent pest problems in commodity storage, to diagnose major rodent species and understand their biology in relation with their management, to understand the methods of assessing their infestation and damage incidence and to understand the planning processes involved for implementation of rodent pest management.

Fifteen days certificate course on Urban Integrated Pest Management

As per the Insecticides Rules framed under Insecticides Act, 1968 the PCOs who apply for grant of license for undertaking pest control operations should be at least a graduate in Agriculture or in Science with Chemistry as a subject with a certificate of minimum 15 days training on “Urban Integrated Pest Management” (UIPM).National Institute of Plant Health Management (NIPHM) is one of the notified institutes for giving training on UIPM for the pest control professionals. The training provides an opportunity to develop skills about urban pest’s biology, bionomics and management practices and prepares the participants for emergency preparedness to prevent the outbreak of communicable zoonotic diseases, to develop skills in safe use of chemical pesticides. The V&UPM organised 15-day duration course entitled on UIPM in 24 batches till date and trained >1500 professionals.

Non-Insect Pest Management- Mites, crabs, snail and slugs and avain

Non-insects pests like mites, crabs, snails, slugs and birds are emerging as important pests in Agriculture, Horticulture and allied sectors causing huge losses to farmers. There is an urgent need to acquaint and train researchers, academicians and field extension functionaries across the country on non-insect pests, their occurrence in different areas, on different crop stages and their relation to climate change by providing various management strategies. In view of the above, the training is conducted from 2020.

Vertebrate Pest Management - Wild boar, Monkey and Birds

The aim of the training is to create the trained manpower and to create awareness about of the major vertebrate pests like wild boar, monkey and birds and it is management techniques to the extension functionaries.

Farmers training on Vertebrate Pest Management (off-campus mode)

The aim of the training is to create awareness about the biology, breeding profile, ethology of the major vertebrate pests like rodents, wild boar, monkey, birds etc., and it is management techniques to the farmers. The training is offered at farmer’s locality on off-campus mode. More thrust is given to train the farmers of rodent endemic areas and north eastern states.

Rodent / Vertebrate Pest Management for extension officers (off-campus mode)

The aim of the training is to create the trained manpower and to create awareness about of the major vertebrate pests like wild boar, monkey and birds and it is management techniques to the extension functionaries for those who could not come to NIPHM and attend the training. Scientist from NIPHM visits the respective institution from other states who arrange for the training and give training to the extension officers.


1. USDA-NIPHM Collaboration

National Institute of Plant Health Management strives to emerge as an internationally acclaimed Centre of Excellence for Human Resource and Policy Development in Plant Biosecurity and sustainable Plant Health Management. To strengthen the capacity in training, research and policy issues in the area of Plant Health Management and Plant Biosecurity, NIPHM has initiated action for collaboration with USAID/USDA. The collaboration with USDA/USAID has been approved by Department of Agriculture & Cooperation (DAC) and Ministry of External Affairs (MEA). The work plan on areas of collaborative activities has been developed jointly by NIPHM and USDA. The work plan has been approved by Department of Agriculture & Cooperation. Technical experts from USDA/APHIS associated with NIPHM faculty organized several international and national capacity building programs.

2. Evaluating the synergistic role of elevated levels of CO2 and heat in the efficacy of phosphine fumigation – Collaborative research project with USDA

Seven test insect species (Trogoderma granarium, Tribolium castaneum, Rhizopertha domonica, Sitophilus oryzae, Callosobruchus chinensis, Stegobium panecium and Lasioderma serricorne) were found showing significant results at different combinations of phosphine, carbon dioxide and temperature. Trogoderma granarium and other insects with phosphine along with CO2 combinations at 40°C temperature for six to seven days gives 100% mortality.

3. Designing & Constructing different types of Traps-Collaborative research project with USDA

4. The Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry DAFF, Australia – NIPHM Collaboration

NIPHM in collaboration with DAFF Australia organized a workshop on Sanitary and Phytosanitary (SPS) Awareness for the officials of Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Maldives, Sri Lanka and India at New Delhi. Second workshop on Sanitary and Phytosanitary (SPS) Awareness was organized at Sri Lanka.

5. Eradication of Invasive weed Ambrosia psilostachya

An obnoxious ragweed was reported to occur in Tumkur district of Karnataka and was later identified as Ambrosia psilostachya DC, an invasive weed of Mexican and Northern American origin. The weed is of quarantine significance to India and regulated as quarantine weed under Schedule VII of PQ Order, 2003. This weed is highly invasive in its native and introduced range. The negative effects of the weed are being experience in invaded forest and agro-ecosystems and in public and social lands. The weed needs to be contained to prevent the further spread and subsequently eradicated. A delimiting survey was conducted for Ambrosia psilostachya with an objective to gauge the extent of its spread and arrest further spread and to plan for its eradication.

Eradication of Invasive weed Ambrosia psilostachya

6.Study on Fumigation of Coffee Beans with Aluminium Phosphide-Collaborative project with Coffee Research Institute

This project is collaborated with Central Coffee Research Institute, Chickmagalur, Karnataka to evaluate the efficacy of ALP fumigation of coffee beans against coffee berry borer and to study the effect of Aluminium Phosphide fumigation on the mortality of all stages including egg of coffee berry borer. The research is initiated and mass multiplication of insects in the laboratory.

7. Alternatives to Methyl Bromide fumigation for wheat, pulses and wood Fumigation- DAC project

This project is funded and collaborated with Department of Agriculture and Cooperation mainly to evaluate the efficacy of ALP fumigation against Pulse beetle in pulses, Rice weevil (Sitophilus oryzae) in Wheat and Lyctid beetles and termites in wood.

8. Computer assisted digital Identification keys for Stored Grain Insects Pests and fruit flies of import and export concern

Detection and Identification is very important in decision making and early warning system of pest and disease. Digital interactive keys (descriptive and pictorial) for identification of the stored grain pests and fruit fly have been prepared and hosted on NIPHM website for public access. Fact sheets, glossary and microscopic images are included


9. Protecting Food Security in SE Asian Countries by Developing Early warning and Ready Response Systems for Invasive Weed Incursions- Global Challenges Research Fund-UK

The Project objective was to bring together experts in weed risk analysis, agricultural economics, agricultural data collection, bio-economic modelling, and digital technology; and plant protection policy-makers and educators from India, Bhutan and United Kingdom and to identify the stakeholder requirements and resource requirements for the development and evaluation of the above said tools.

10. Prioritization of exotic looming Plant Pest Threats & domestic Quarantine pests, and Identification of Geographic Potential Areas for the pest establishment

As per section of ISPM 2 (Guidelines for Pest Risk Analysis; International Standard for Phytosanitary Measures 2; IPPC, 2019), Climatic modelling systems may be used to compare climatic data on the known distribution of a pest with that in the PRA area to assess the probability of establishment. Furthermore, as per section of PRA training manual (FAO, 2007), analysis may involve the use of geographic information systems (GIS) and other computerized systems such as CLIMEX to model and map potential pest distributions in the PRA area. Hence, CLIMEX modeling system is applied to estimate the potential endangered areas for the pest establishment.

11. Studies on shelf life and packing material for export of major green leafy vegetables

The green leafy vegetables such as Spinach, Amaranthus, Methi, Purslane and Roselle were packed in various packing material and kept at room temperature and refrigerated condition in order to study their shelf life.

12. Survey on the Incidence of sucking pest complex of different vegetable crops in Rangareddy district, Telangana

A survey was conducted to know the status of different insect pests and natural enemies associated with major vegetable crops grown in Rangareddy district, Telangana during the year 2020-2021. Villages viz., Papireddyguda, Lemur, Chenvelli, Peddashapur, Chegur and Kanduwada from Rangareddy district were selected to record the pest incidence under roving survey.

13. Establishment of Plant Health Clinic

Provided pest /disease /other advisory solutions and Eco-friendly control measures to the farmers. Given demonstrations/Distribution of kits / Training programmes etc., in all the selected 22 villages from Rangareddy, Suryapet, Warangal Urban and Warangal Rural. Established Plant Health Clinics each at Rangareddy, Suryapet, Warangal Urban and Warangal Rural.

14. Studies on impact of rodents in different Human habitat in Hyderabad city

In urban environment the close association between human and rats increased the potential for spread of many zoonotic diseases and causing significant morbidity and mortality. The zoonotic case number is increasing every year. Therefore, there is a need to understand the effect of environment factors that favours the build-up rodent population in urban situation.

15. Development of wild boar management modules in agro ecosystem

Evaluated different feasible integrated management modules available for effective management of wild boar in agro ecosystem. In single tier module, circular razor blade wire and bioacoustics treatments were highly effective and gave complete protection against the damage caused by wild boar. In two tier module, the fishnet + coconut coir treated with pig oil and biofence + bioacoustics system gave full protection to the crops from damage by wild boar. In case of three tier module Fishnet + Treated coconut coir (pig oil) + Bioacoustics have protected the crop from wild boar without any damage.

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